Multimedia: The Multimedia Principle

Paul Desmarais at Musselman Arch


Multimedia & Contiguity Principles

Modality & Redundancy Principles

Personalization Principle/ Visual Coach


Principles of Multimedia

Worked Examples



Worked Examples

Worked examples are a powerful tool in the designer's toolbox. Worked examples are a proven effective method of instructional process, and a great deal of research has been performed on the idea of worked examples. Step by step explanations and demonstrations of how to perform a given task seems like an obvious way to teach, and is an important technique for teaching students how to build procedural skills.

How these worked examples are segemented, however, is critical to instructional success. This idea is tied directly to the theory of cognitive load, and the segmentation principle of multimedia learning. Limited working memory capacity is best used for knowledge construction. Research indicates students learn more effectively is practice problems are preceded by worked examples, so students are first introduced to the concepts and problem sovling and construct the knowledge it takes to solve the particular type of problem prior to actually working to solve them.

This short instructional video is an example of a worked example piece of instruction, where a procedure is explained, step by step, as a prelude or as an introduction to a practical exercise on the same topic.