In Europe during the Middle Ages, increases in trade and commerce resulted in
- lower living standards for industrial workers
- decreased economic rivalry between kings
- increased political power for the clergy
- development of towns and cities
In Europe, a long-term effect of the Crusades was
- the strengthening of the feudal system
- the adoption of Islamic religious practices
- an increased demand for goods from the East
- increased European isolation
The Crusades have been called “history’s most successful failures.” Which
statement best explains this expression?
- The Crusades did not achieve their original goals, but they
brought about many desirable changes in Europe.
- Although the Crusaders captured the Holy Land, they were
unable to bring about democratic reforms.
- The Crusades helped bring about the fall of the Roman Empire
- The Crusaders prevented the Turks from capturing
Constantinople for many centuries